Wie Blockchain und Internet of Things voneinander profitieren und sich gegenseitig fördern

Blockchain, Business Model Innovation, Business models, Distributed Ledger Technologie (DLT), Internet of things, IoT, Uncategorized

The article on Blockchain & Internet of Things which I wrote with Martin Aarnoudse, is picked-up by the German colleagues of OV Software of Martin. The team asked us if they could translate the article in German for their website. You can find the result here: OV Software: Blockchain und IoT

Blockchain & IoT – zwei vielversprechende und große (R)Evolutionen in der digitalen Welt.Die Blockchain Technologie auf der einen Seite verspricht uns, dass wir in der digitalen Welt ein reales Vertrauensverhältnis erreichen, und das mit weniger Einmischung von Dritten, von Regierungen und Institutionen. Das Internet der Dinge (Internet of Thing – IoT) gibt uns andererseits völlig neue Einblicke, anhand derer wir heute steuernd eingreifen können. Einblicke, die uns Erkenntnisse über den Zustand eines äußeren Umfelds oder den inneren Zustand von Menschen, Tieren, Anwendungen oder was auch immer liefern.

Werfen wir zunächst einen Blick auf die Vor- und Nachteile dieser beiden Technologien, bevor wir uns ihnen inhaltlich zuwenden

Zentrale Versprechen der Blockchain

Beginnen wir mit den Schlüsselmerkmalen und den wesentlichen Versprechen der Blockchain:

Digitales Vertrauen
Denken Sie einmal an all die Möglichkeiten, Geschäfte zu tätigen und produktiv zu sein, wenn es keine Einmischung von Institutionen oder anderen Dritten gäbe. Die Stärke der Blockchain liegt darin, dass wir zur Steigerung der Produktivität eine Umgebung digitalen Vertrauens schaffen. Sie müssen nicht einmal der Person vertrauen, mit der Sie Geschäfte machen – Sie beide vertrauen der Technologie.

Transparenz und Dezentralisierung
Eine Blockchain ist ein System dezentraler und verteilter Datenbanken. Jeder kann eine Kopie der Daten haben. Aus diesem Grund ist die Blockchain vielversprechend, was die Bereitstellung von Daten angeht: Die richtige Person hat im richtigen Moment Zugriff auf die richtigen Kenntnisse.

Double Spending – Doppelte Ausgaben
In der Blockchain kann ein Betrag nicht zweimal ausgegeben werden. Sie können ein Haus nicht zweimal verkaufen oder die gleiche Banknote zweimal ausgeben. Die Blockchain garantiert in ihrem Algorithmus, dass doppelte Ausgaben unmöglich sind. Sie können sich darauf verlassen, dass Sie die/der Einzige sind, der/dem ein bestimmter Wert gehört.

Eigentum
Als Konsument möchten Sie sicher sein, dass der Absender in der Blockchain tatsächlich auch Eigentümer eines Wertes ist. Die verwendete Kryptographie sorgt dafür, dass nur die Person mit dem „Private Key“ diesen Wert an den Empfänger senden kann. Daher ist es sehr wichtig, dass dieser sicher gespeichert wird, idealerweise in einem Offline-Vault.

Smart Contracts
Die meisten Blockchains unterstützen Smart Contracts – eine sehr leistungsstarkes Feature, mit dem sich Vertrauen und Geld nun programmieren lassen. Investopedia gibt eine recht gute Definition von Smart Contracting: „Smart Contracts sind selbstausführende Verträge, wobei die Bedingungen der Vereinbarung zwischen Käufer und Verkäufer direkt in die Codezeilen geschrieben werden. Der Code und die darin enthaltenen Vereinbarungen existieren innerhalb eines verteilten, dezentralen Blockchain-Netzwerks. Smart Contracts ermöglichen die gesicherte Durchführung von Transaktionen und Vereinbarungen zwischen verschiedenen anonymen Parteien ohne die Notwendigkeit einer zentralen Behörde, eines Rechtssystems oder eines externen Durchsetzungsmechanismus. Sie machen Transaktionen nachvollziehbar, transparent und irreversibel.“ (Quelle: Definition von „Smart Contracts“, Investopedia (www.investopedia.com), übersetzt aus dem Englischen).

Fragen rund um Blockchain

Sehen wir uns nun einmal einige der Fragen an, die in Zusammenhang mit der Blockchain- und Distributed-Ledger-Technologie auftauchen.

Sicherheit und Datenschutz
Hier gibt es viele Fragezeichen: Woher weiß ich, dass die Blockchain nicht gehackt werden kann? Welche Auswirkungen hat das Quantencomputing auf die Sicherheit? Das Recht auf Vergessenwerden, wie wird das umgesetzt? Wenn jeder die Daten lesen kann, wie sichere ich diese? Wo werden meine Daten gespeichert? Wie kann ich den Daten in der Blockchain vertrauen? Welche Möglichkeiten hat ein Identity Provider? Die Liste ließe sich beliebig fortsetzen. Aber wir möchten an dieser Stelle lediglich einen Eindruck davon vermitteln, welche Fragen zu Sicherheit und Datenschutz sich im Hinblick auf Blockchain/DLT stellen.

Vorschriften
Viele legen ihr Hauptaugenmerk auf die Tatsache, dass es in der Blockchain weniger Eingriffe durch Dritte gibt – und das ist korrekt. Tatsache ist aber auch, dass diese manchmal durch andere ersetzt werden. Nehmen Sie zum Beispiel einen Versicherungsabschluss via Blockchain. Sie müssen immer noch der Versicherungsgesellschaft als (z. B.) Regulator in diesem Prozess vertrauen, einer Organisation, deren Aufgabe es ist… – Sie verstehen.

Internet der Dinge: die wichtigsten Vorteile

Nachdem wir nun einige der zahlreichen Vor- und Nachteile der Blockchain betrachtet haben, stürzen wir uns jetzt auf das Internet der Dinge (IoT) und machen dasselbe mit dieser Technologie.

Erkenntnisse
Der größte Vorteil des Internet der Dinge ist, dass wir auf Erkenntnisse vertrauen können, die wir in dieser Form noch nie hatten. Vor dem Zeitalter von IoT, Sensoren, Industry X.0 erfolgte die Steuerung basierend auf Unternehmensdaten, die oftmals unvollständig oder ungenau waren oder nicht richtig interpretiert wurden.

Echtzeitdaten
Ein weiterer großer Vorteil ist die Veränderung weg von historischen Daten hin zu (beinahe) Echtzeitdaten. Das Internet der Dinge hilft uns enorm dabei, anhand von „jetzt“-Daten  zu entscheiden. Aus diesem Grund ist es einer der Hauptmotoren für Dinge wie die präventive und die vorausschauende Wartung.

Öffentliche Daten
Auch im Bereich der öffentlichen Daten wie Wetter- und Regierungsinformationen treibt das Internet der Dinge die Entwicklung bedeutend voran. Mit dieser Art von externen Informationen und „Big Data“ können wir datengesteuerte Entscheidungen treffen und auf Informationen reagieren, von denen wir vor einigen Jahrzehnten nicht einmal träumen konnten.

Fragen zum Internet der Dinge

Nach den Vorteilen wollen wir uns die Nachteile des Internet der Dinge näher ansehen.

Datenschutz
Mit Sensoren, Kameras und mehr an jeder Straßenecke stellt sich die Frage, wie wir unser Recht und Privileg namens Datenschutz umsetzen können. Ein Beispiel dafür, wie das Internet der Dinge beispielsweise einen Überwachungsstaat ermöglicht, ist das, was gerade in China geschieht. „Die chinesische Regierung plant, im Jahr 2020 ihr Social Credit System einzuführen. Das Ziel? Zu beurteilen, wie vertrauenswürdig – oder nicht – ihre 1,3 Milliarden Einwohner sind.“ Das ist der Header eines auf Wired (www.wired.com) erschienene Artikels mit dem Titel „Big data meets Big Brother as China moves to rate its citizens”.

Sicherheit
Ein weiterer Punkt, der einem in den Sinn kommt, ist der sehr unsichere Zustand des IoT heutzutage. Wie können wir bei der Zunahme von vernetzten Maschinen und Produkten eine sichere Datenspeicherung und den Transport von (lokalen) Gateways in die Cloud verwalten? Die Definition von „Wert“ verschiebt sich –  weg von materiellen und physischen Dingen, hin zu Daten. Cyberattacken und Hackerangriffe nehmen zu, werden immer größer und richten immer mehr Schaden an.

Die Stärke in der Kombination dieser beiden mächtigen Technologien

Beim Lesen dieses Artikels könnte man sich fragen: Warum sollte ich zwei Technologien kombinieren, bei denen ich Dinge wie Datenschutz und Sicherheit in Frage stelle? Hier einige Antworten darauf.

Einer der wichtigen Punkte ist: Wie kann den Blockchain-Daten vertraut werden? An dieser Stelle kommen die Stärken von IoT und Blockchain zusammen. Können die vom IoT-Gerät generierten Daten als Input für die Transaktion in der Blockchain verwendet werden, so lässt sich die Eingabe validieren. Aber wie kann ich dem IoT-Gerät vertrauen? Müssen Sie dem IoT-Gerät vertrauen? In den meisten Fällen lautet die Antwort natürlich „ja“. Aber betrachten wir einmal den Punkt, nachdem die Daten generiert wurden. Wir haben drei Gründe zusammengefasst, warum die Kombination von Internet of Things & Blockchain so viel Potenzial hat und warum es lohnend ist, sich mit diesen Bereichen zu beschäftigen:

Verschlüsselung und verteilter Speicher
Werden die von Sensor und Auslöser erzeugten Daten gespeichert und mit der Blockchain-Technologie verschlüsselt, so können diese Rohdaten zu einem verteilten Netzwerk transportiert werden. Aber welche Daten müssen gespeichert werden? Eine Lösung besteht darin, alle Daten in einer dezentralen verteilten Cloud-Speicherumgebung zu speichern und den Hash der Rohdaten in der Blockchain hinzuzufügen. So können die Daten nicht verändert werden, da dies auch den Hashwert verändern würde. Die Größe dieser Transaktion ist sehr gering, da sie nur einen Hash enthält. Sie können Gleiches aber auch mit vollständigen Dokumenten oder Bildern tun.

Perfekte Audit Trails
Mit einer wachsenden Zahl von Netzwerken und Daten gewinnt die Frage, was real ist und was nicht, immer mehr an Bedeutung. Aus diesem Grund kann die Blockchain zur Erstellung eines perfekten Audit-Trails eingesetzt werden, um die Quelle und die Verbindung zwischen Daten zu lokalisieren.

IoT-Geräten vertrauen
Wie kann ich einem Unternehmen vertrauen? Woher weiß ich, ob ein B & B gut ist? Durch Bewertungen. Kann ich den Bewertungen vertrauen? Oftmals nicht. Die gleiche Frage stellt sich bei der Nutzung von Daten der IoT-Geräte. Es ist sehr wahrscheinlich, dass diese in Zukunft bewertet werden. Und ja, die Bewertungen sind dann in der Blockchain, sodass Sie überprüfen können, ob die Bewertung authentisch ist. Eine andere Lösung wäre die Speicherung alle gültigen „Public Keys“ von vertrauenswürdigen IoT-Geräten in einer Blockchain.

Experimentiere und iteriere – immer und immer wieder

Wir möchten den Artikel mit folgendem Hinweis abschließen. Alle technologischen Durchbrüche beginnen, indem das wahre Potenzial bestimmter Technologien erkannt wird. Wie oft waren Erfinder „aus Versehen“ erfolgreich? Daher ist es wichtig, das Vertrauen und das Budget bereitzustellen, um mit einer neuen Technologie zu experimentieren und herauszufinden, welche Möglichkeiten tatsächlich in ihr stecken. Kennen wir das wahre Potenzial, so haben wir einen Ausgangspunkt, um die Auswirkungen auf das Geschäft(smodell) von Morgen auszuarbeiten und wir können damit beginnen, den Traum Wirklichkeit werden zu lassen.

Das bringt uns zu unserem letzten Punkt – „Moonshots“ (dt: Mondflug). Oftmals ist damit Folgendes gemeint: „Ein Moonshot im Technologiekontext ist ein ehrgeiziges, exploratives und bahnbrechendes Projekt, bei dem keine kurzfristige Rentabilität oder kurzfristiger Nutzen erwartet wird, und das – möglicherweise – ohne eine umfassende Untersuchung potenzieller Risiken und Vorteile durchgeführt wird“ (Quelle: TechTarget). Also…, die große Frage nach dem Lesen dieses Artikels ist:

Was ist Ihr Moonshot, wenn es um die Zusammenführung des Potentials von IoT & Blockchain geht?

 

Über die Autoren

Martin Aarnoudse – ist IT-Fachmann bei OVSoftware und spezialisiert auf auf .NET und Blockchain. Für ihn ist die Blockchain-Technologie der nächste große Renner. Er hat einige interne Sessions zu Blockchain gegeben und für dieses Jahr sind externe Veranstaltungen für Entwickler geplant. Darüber hinaus betreut er zwei Studienabsolventen zu diesem Thema.

Rick Bouter – ist Berater „Emerging Technology” bei Accenture Consulting. In dieser Funktion hilft Rick Unternehmen, die Auswirkungen neuer und aufkommender Technologien zu verstehen und sie für ihre Kunden einzusetzen. In seiner Freizeit schreibt Rick Artikel über Innovationen und Trends wie Blockchain, Internet der Dinge, künstliche Intelligenz und andere, die auf seiner Website zu finden sind. (www.rickbouter.com.) Die Auswirkungen neuer Technologien auf Mensch, Ethik und Wirtschaft sind Themen, die ihn ansprechen.

Beide Autoren können über ihre LinkedIn-Seiten kontaktiert werden.

Dieser Artikel wurde am 4. Juni 2018 in englischer Sprache auf www.rickbouter.com veröffentlicht.

 

Blockchain Technology – A Cure for Pharmaceutical Counterfeit (2/2)

Big Data, blockchain, Blockchain, Business Model Innovation, Business models, Distributed Ledger Technologie (DLT), Innovation, Inspiring, Leading Digital, technology, Trends, Trendwatching, Uncategorized

A few weeks back the first part of Marlou her article appeared on www.rickbouter.com. You can find the start of this article here: “Part I – Current status, Impact on the Industry

Part II – how/ practicalities

On the bright side, Blockchain is expected to totally transform the pharmaceutical industry far beyond compliance. In addition to eliminating counterfeit, reassuring patient safety, adhering to regulations, optimizing supply chain operations, and protecting revenue, Blockchain is expected to standardize and automate multiple procedures, making an intermediary party redundant.

The patient in the lead of the supply chain

The patient will be put at the lead of the supply chain, allowing a more direct patient-stakeholder interaction, and is thought to facilitate the trend of personalized medicine, by making real-time patient data accessible to pharmaceutical companies. Combined with optimal utilization of analytics, pharmaceutical companies can better meet the patient demand and more directly reach their target market. This not only eases entrance barriers of market penetration, but also provides the opportunity to restrict premium pricing. The ‘pay-for-efficacy’ principle allows the price of a pharmaceutical product to be set according to the – relative – efficacy of a pharmaceutical product. This shows similarity with the ‘no cure no pay’ principle, requiring pharmaceutical companies to even more deliberately invest in secure and stable R&D projects.

Long term vs. short term impact of Blockchain in pharma

The benefits of Blockchain for the pharmaceutical industry may not be directly reflected in their revenues, but for sure have a long term impact with the potential extension to the healthcare sector in providing healthcare of a higher quality and the ability to better shape healthcare according to specific patient needs.

Optimizing impact of Blockchain due to technological add-ons

The optimizing impact of Blockchain can be further utilized by technological add-ons such as smart contracts, sensors, artificial intelligence, and different applications of IoT. Cold-chain logistics is a concrete example of an extended concept of Blockchain, where the integration of sensors and IoT allow supply chain stakeholders to track and confirm the conditions to which the products were exposed. This strongly contributes to the ability to confirm product quality and enables the industry to specifically remove individual products in case of an error, rather than reclamation of entire batches. The bottom line of these improvements is a business case for the pharmaceutical industry, of cost reduction and increased profits, accordingly.

Blockchain: Tangible prove of potential business value

We can easily write a bookwork about the speculations of what Blockchain can and cannot do. However, what we need exactly is not found in speculations, but rather in tangible prove of potential and unlocking of the business value for the pharmaceutical industry. The industry needs to take big and concrete steps towards implementation if they want to benefit from Blockchain’s potential. A concept unknown is a concept unloved, and therefore a critical act is to increase awareness around Blockchain as a technology and break through Blockchain’s technological abstractness.

Penetrating the pharmaceutical ecosystem

Although the core concept of Blockchain has already, to a certain extent, penetrated the pharmaceutical ecosystem, the majority is still unaware of the far-reaching and innovative applicability of Blockchain in digitally transforming the pharmaceutical industry. There are several steps the industry is recommended to follow if they want to unlock the business value of Blockchain for the industry. Education is a primary aspect to address the often existing asymmetry in awareness, knowledge, and understanding of Blockchain as a technology and what it has to offer in terms of potential. Part of getting stakeholders aligned with each other is to get them on the same level of expertise and thus to provide them with the required information. In addition, stakeholder’s hesitative or negative attitude towards Blockchain is to some extent a result of their deviating or wrong perception of Blockchain’s potential and how it works, also in their advantage. A better understanding of the technology would help the industry to better grasp the concept and its application.

Stakeholders intrests at stake

To reach the stakeholders of interest and in the run-up to get them on board, a pharmaceutical consortium should be formed as a starting point. In order to create alignment across the industry, stakeholders will need to discuss their objectives, perspectives, and expectations regarding an implementation of Blockchain. A consortium creates solid ground to further build on a pharmaceutical Blockchain, step by step. Together, stakeholders can determine the pain points that deserve priority in exploring and testing and formulate a consensus as the basis of the Blockchain.

Formulating specific use cases in a fragmented industry

Generally, it is important to determine and formulate specific use cases beforehand. To prevent the industry to come up with a pain point merely to follow the Blockchain hype, there should be focused on the recognition and formulation of specific use cases in the pharmaceutical environment. Specification allows for focused testing of pilots and concepts, generating tailored outcomes rather than standardized parameters that need to be translated to a particular use case. For this to be successful, the operational processes of pharmaceutical companies need to be overseen and frameworked. Given the fragmented nature of pharmaceutical companies, let alone the industry as a whole, achieving adoption is a fairly complicated process.

Mobilizing the pharmaceutical chain

The pharmaceutical industry will need to better cooperate with each other, allowing for change in their processes and behaviors. However, this is not so much of a rational process as it might have been pretended to be. Proving business value and encouraging stakeholders to embrace Blockchain definitely are steps in the right direction, but do not provide a guarantee of the technology to succeed in the pharmaceutical ecosystem. Practically, the conventional, risk-averse nature of the pharmaceutical industry and their need for evolution over revolution may just be difficult to unify with the disruptive, revolutionizing character of Blockchain. This large gap between technology and business may strain industry-wide adoption, even though stakeholders are on board with the solution. Another aspect challenging the implementation of Blockchain, but is difficult to address, is the quality of the input and the data recorded onto the Blockchain. Despite the immutable nature of the technology, the quality of the Blockchain is only as good as the quality of the information that is entered. It will be extremely difficult to qualify the channel where the information enters the Blockchain, which impinges on the promised trustless character of Blockchain.

Conclusion: Blockchain: turning the inevitable into the desirable

All in all, the previously anticipated resistance coming from the pharmaceutical industry is better to be redefined as hesitation to get involved with what is uncertain and unknown. The pharmaceutical industry needs to put the blocks together and build a solid ground to embrace digitalization, which does not imply having to set aside their cautious, hesitative attitude nor their responsibility. A way to go is to invest in education, the formation of a pharmaceutical consortium, and additional testing in the act to unlock Blockchain’s business value for the pharmaceutical industry, to once and forever turn the inevitable into the desirable, and harvest the benefits. Nevertheless, the pharmaceutical industry should keep a critical eye on the anticipated challenges as well as on new emerging technologies that are on their way to overhaul the potential of Blockchain.

Biography

With a background in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Marlou is currently in the last stage of the Master’s program Science and Business Management, pursuing her passion of unlocking the synergy between life science and business. Her ambition is to improve and strengthen the collaborative relationship of life science and business development, through encouraging communication and cooperation between the different fields. After finalizing her graduate internship at Accenture Strategy, The Netherlands, focusing on the potential of Blockchain for the pharmaceutical supply chain, Marlou is starting a PhD in human psychopharmacology at Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia, striving for the aspired career in the pharmaceutical industry.

Image credits: Image 1, Disruptordaily Image 2, UKRInvest Image 3, Statnews

De impact van nieuwe (Blockchain) technologie – RMU.nu

blockchain, Blockchain, Business models, data, Digital maturity, digital transformation, Distributed Ledger Technologie (DLT), Innovation, Inspiring, technology, Trends, Trendwatching

Dit artikel is 15/06/2018 verschenen op de website van de RMU

Om relevant te blijven in een versnelde veranderende wereld, is er volgens Rick Bouter maar een antwoord mogelijk: Innovatie. En dat betekent dus ook kijken naar nieuwe technologieën. In deze blog legt hij uit wat Blockchain is en wat de potentie is van deze technologie.

Versnelde verandering lijkt in de wereld van vandaag één van de weinige constante elementen. Internetbedrijven schieten de grond uit als paddenstoelen en veroveren in elke maand of elk jaar complete markten die (soms sinds mensenheugenis) als gevestigde orde gezien werden. Hier kun je denken aan de bekende voorbeelden als Uber, die de taxi- en vervoersmarkt op zijn kop zet, Airbnb die dit met de verhuur van appartementen, huizen en kamers doet, maar ook aan Spotify en Deezer die de muziekindustrie in een compleet nieuw jasje steken. Verandering gaat dus snel, heel snel. Stilstand is vandaag de dag niet alleen achtergang, maar lijkt eerder op achteruitrennen. Een van de weinige vragen die overblijven voor bedrijven, organisaties en instellingen is: “Hoe blijf ik relevant in de snel veranderende wereld van morgen?”.

Innovatie is de enige manier om te winnen

Een concreet antwoord op deze vraag is even simpel als complex. “Innovatie is de enige manier om te winnen…” Als we deze vraag verder afpellen, komen we al snel bij de enablers van innovatie. Vandaag de dag is een van de grootste enablers en veroorzakers van innovatie het potentieel van nieuwe technologieën. Wanneer je dus wilt innoveren komt al snel het ongekende potentieel van nieuwe technologie om de hoek kijken. Internet of Things, Kunstmatige Intelligence, Virtual Reality, Nano technologie en Blockchain zijn veel gehypete en ook ‘over’gehypete technologieën.

Blockchain, een technologie met potentieel Laten we een van deze technologieën eens wat nader bekijken. Van programmeur tot boardmember: de term Blockchain geeft slapeloze nachten. Blockchain, de techniek achter de Bitcoin, kent veel meer toepassingsgebieden dan alleen cryptocurrency. Zo wordt gewerkt aan toepassingen in onroerend goed, containertransport, gezondheidszorg, muziekrechten, verzekeringen en pensioen. De technologie wordt door sommigen gezien als een innovatie vergelijkbaar met het internet. De grote vraag bij deze trend is: wat moet en mag je er nu mee?

Blockchain als digitaal vertrouwen

Blockchain is een technologie die het mogelijk maakt zaken te doen zonder tussenkomst van derde partijen. Bij deze derde partijen kun je aan allerlei organisaties en instanties denken. Van rijksoverheid tot gemeenten, van jurist tot ver¬zekeraar en van notaris tot kadaster. Deze derde partijen zijn ooit in het leven geroepen omdat wij, mensen, elkaar niet vertrouwen in het zaken doen of afhankelijk zijn van deze derde partij. We vertrouwen elkaar ten diepste niet terwijl dit een van de kernpijlers is van zakendoen. Een van de kernpijlers, net als andere belangrijke pijlers als een ruilmiddel (berenvel, goud, olie en bijvoorbeeld geld) maar ook het bewijs dat deze waarde maar eenmalig kan worden uitgegeven voor een bepaalde tegenwaarde. Blockchain als technologie waarborgt deze belangrijke aspecten van zakendoen en zou in potentie dus een belangrijke pijler in onze economie kunnen worden.

Hoe Blockchain werkt

Blockchain is de bekendste Distributed Ledger Technologie (DLT). Deze gedistribueerde grootboek technologie heeft als belangrijkste doel om een consensus te bereiken over zaken die over dit netwerk komen. Laten we even zaken doen als uitgangspunt nemen. De kern van zakendoen is een transactie van waarde. Deze waarde kan een huis zijn, een verzekering, maar ook gewoon een valuta. Blockchain is kort samengevat een computernetwerk waarin elk onderdeel van het netwerk een compleet overzicht van transacties heeft en dit op een decentrale manier opslaat in databases. Deze transacties samen vormen een block. Het laatste blok is ‘de waarheid’ waaraan niet meer getornd kan worden, dit waarborgt het gedistribueerde netwerk. Dit laatste block is dus de input voor het nieuwe block en de nieuwe transacties. Door de tijd worden meer transacties gevalideerd en komen er dus ook meer setjes van transacties bij (blocks) en zo vormt zich dus een digitale keten van blokken, een Blockchain.

Omdat deze waarheid omtrent transacties vastgelegd is over het gehele netwerk kan die vrijwel niet gemanipuleerd worden en is frauderen ook bijna uitgesloten. Op het moment dat er een transactie gedaan wordt, wordt deze gevalideerd door alle onderdelen in het netwerk. Deze onderdelen bevestigen de principes van zakendoen. Is er een waarde? Wordt deze waarde een keer uitgegeven? Komt er een betalende waarde voor terug? Wat zijn specifieke kenmerken van de deal? (Hierbij kun je denken aan tijdstip, betrokkenen en andere items die specifiek meegegeven kunnen worden.) Zo zou je kunnen zeggen dat de Blockchain een open grootboek is waarin alle transacties terug te vinden zijn. Door de rekenkracht die het netwerk ter beschikking stelt worden deze blokken gevalideerd door ingewikkelde wiskundige formules die niet zo maar iedere huis- tuin- en keukencomputer kan kraken. Degene die als eerste de transacties valideert krijgt hiervoor in ruil Bitcoins. Dit principe wordt mining genoemd. Nu zijn er uiteraard diverse mogelijkheden van een Blockchain want niet alles kan en mag open zijn. Zo kun je een publieke variant op Blockchain hebben waarin veel informatie open en bloot staat, maar ook privé Blockchains waarin alleen bepaalde geautoriseerde personen/ instanties toegang hebben. Ook hebben al diverse consortia van partijen die elkaar vertrouwen samen een keten op willen zetten.

Bij mijn vorige werkgever hebben we een whitepaper* geschreven over Blockchain met een sprekend voorbeeld erin. “Stel u beheert een systeem met fietshuurinformatie. Een klassiek systeem zal in de database een record hebben staan waarin staat wie momenteel welke fiets gehuurd heeft. Een Blockchainsysteem zal echter een ketting van huurmutaties hebben waarin de fiets toegewezen wordt aan klanten en weer terugverwezen wordt aan de eigenaar. Al deze mutaties zijn ondertekend door de klant en de eigenaar. Zo weten we zeker dat de transactie heeft plaatsgevonden en kunnen we ook opmaken wie de fiets momenteel in bezit heeft. Blockchain is digitaal vertrouwen, maar hoe zorgt het systeem ervoor dat alleen geautoriseerde personen mutaties doen op de database? Hier komt cryptografie om de hoek kijken. Elke deelnemer aan het systeem genereert een set sleutels, een publieke en een geheime sleutel. De publieke sleutel is een controlemiddel voor andere gebruikers om te controleren of berichten van jou ook echt ondertekend zijn met je geheime sleutel. Deze publieke sleutel is daarom ook niet geheim, sterker nog het is vaak je identificatienummer, bijvoorbeeld je personeelsnummer, of in het geval van Bitcoin: je portemonnee-adres. Stel een deelnemer aan het systeem wil een mutatie doorvoeren op de database, dan ondertekent hij het mutatiebericht met zijn geheime sleutel. Andere deelnemers aan het systeem kunnen met hun publieke sleutel controle¬ren of dat bericht ook daadwerkelijk door hem is ondertekend.” Bron: Caesar Overheid whitepaper: Blockchain, de hype voorbij.

Tot zover deel 1: “De impact van nieuwe (Blockchain) technologie.” In het volgende deel hopen we verder na te denken over de impact van Blockchain technologie op ethiek en kijken we ook breder naar technologische innovatie en haar impact op ethiek.

Rick Bouter is consultant Emerging Technologie (opkomende technologieën) binnen Accenture’s consulting domein. Binnen deze rol helpt Rick bedrijven de impact van nieuwe technologieën te begrijpen en toe te passen om op deze manier te innoveren en positieve impact te creëren voor klanten. In zijn vrije tijd schrijft Rick artikelen over innovatie- en technologietrends als Internet of Things, Kunstmatige Intelligentie, Blockchain en Digitale Transformatie onder andere voor zijn website: http://www.rickbouter.com. In het bijzonder de impact van technologie op mens, maatschappij en ethiek zijn onderwerpen die Rick boeien. Om deze reden denkt hij met een aantal mensen na over het idee om een christelijke denktank te starten met een focus op nieuwe technologie en de im¬pact op ethiek. Mocht je over het voorgaande/ of eventuele andere vragen hebben, dan kun je Rick bereiken via zijn LinkedIn pagina: http://www.linkedin.com/in/rickbouter

 

How Blockchain & the Internet of Things leverage and benefits each other

blockchain, Blockchain, Business models, Distributed Ledger Technologie (DLT), Innovation, Internet of things, IoT

Blockchain & Internet of Things (IoT), two very promising and big (r)evolutions in the digital world. Where Blockchain is promising us less interference of third parties, governments and institutions to provide almost the level of real trust in the digital world. Internet of Things on the other hand is giving us the insights we did never have and now can steer on. Insights that now give us real insights on the state of an external environment or the internal state of men, animal, application or whatsoever. Let us first have a quick look on the pro’s and cons of these two technologies before we dive into the content.

Blockchain key promises

First let us take a closer look to the key features and promises of Blockchain:

  • Digital Trust

Think about all possibilities of doing business and creating productivity without the interference of institutions and other third parties. The power of Blockchain at large is that we create an environment of digital trust to increase productivity. You even don’t have to trust the person you are doing business with because you both trust the technology.

  • Transparancy & decentralization

Blockchain is a system of decentralized and distributed databases. Everyone can have a copy of the data. Blockchain for that reason is promising for getting: the right person getting the right insights at the right moment.

  • Double spending

Value cannot be double spent in Blockchain. You cannot sell a house twice or spend the same banknote twice. Blockchain guaranties in its algorithm that double spending is impossible. You can be sure that you are the only one that owns the value.

  • Ownership

As a consumer of the Blockchain you want to be sure that the sender is the owner of the value. The cryptography that is used assures you that only the person with the private key can send the value to the receiver. So, it is very important that the private key is stored securely, ideally in an offline vault.

  • Smart Contracts

Most of the Blockchains support Smart Contracts. This is a very powerful feature. It is now possible to program trust and money. We found a quite good definition of smart contracting on Investopedia we would like to share.

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement between buyer and seller being directly written into lines of code. The code and the agreements contained therein exist across a distributed, decentralized blockchain network. Smart contracts permit trusted transactions and agreements to be carried out among disparate, anonymous parties without the need for a central authority, legal system, or external enforcement mechanism. They render transactions traceable, transparent, and irreversible.

Smart Contracts Definition | Investopedia

 

Questions around Blockchain

Now let us have a look at some questions we have around Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology:

  • Security & privacy

There are a variety of questions that can be asked regarding security and privacy. How do I know that the Blockchain cannot be hacked? What is the impact of quantum computing on security? The right to be forgotten, how is that implemented? If everyone can read the data how do I secure that? Where is my data stored? How can I trust the data that is on the Blockchain? What are the possibilities of an Identity Provider? The list goes on and on, but we just wanted to give you an impression of questions related to security & privacy and Blockchain/DLT.

  • Regulations

A lot of people are focusing on the fact that there is less interference of third parties, and that is correct. The other fact is that they are replaced by others sometimes. Take the example of having your insurance via Blockchain, you still must trust the insurance company as an (e.g.) regulator in the process and an institution with the role to… You get the point.

Internet of Things key advantages

Now that we have discussed some of the many pro’s and con’s of Blockchain, we will dive into Internet of Things (IoT) and do the same with this technology:

  • Insights

The biggest advantage of Internet of Things is that we can steer on insights we never had before. Before the era of Internet of Things, sensors, Industry X.0 we steered on company data which quite often was incomplete, not accurate or not interpreted right.

  • Real time data

Another big advantage is the shift from historical data to (near) real time data. Internet of Things is helping us big time to steer on data of ‘this’ moment. That is also why IoT is one of the main drivers for elements like preventive and predictive maintenance.

  • Open data

Internet of Things is also a big driver in open data like weather and government data. Using this type of external and Big Data we can make data driven decisions and act on information we were not able to dream of a few decades back.

 

Questions on Internet of Things

After we have discussed the pros of the Internet of Things, let us have closer look at the downside of Internet of Things.

  • Privacy

With sensors, camera’s and other items on every street corner the question is how we can manage our privilege and right called privacy. One example how the Internet of Things is enabling for example a surveillance state is what is happening in China now.

“The Chinese government plans to launch its Social Credit System in 2020. The aim? To judge the trustworthiness – or otherwise – of its 1.3 billion residents”

The text above is the header of the article which appeared on Wired, called: “Big data meets Big Brother as China moves to rate its citizens

  • Security

Another item that comes to mind is the very unsecure state of IoT nowadays. With an increase of connected machines and products how can we manage a secure data storage and transport from (local) gateways to the cloud? With the definition of value changing from material & physical items shifting to data, cyberattacks and hacks are increasing and getting more and more damaging and larger at scale.

The strength of combining these two powerful technologies

There might rise a few questions when reading through this article. Why should I combine two technologies where I doubt items like privacy, security and safety? Here are a few applicable answers:

One of the big questions is: how can data on the Blockchain be trusted? This is where the power of IoT and Blockchain come together.  If the data generated by the IoT device can be used as an input for the transaction on the Blockchain then the input can be validated. But then the next question is raised, how can I trust the IoT device? Do you have to trust the IoT device? Off course most of the time the answer is yes. But for now, let us look at the point after the data is generated. We have summed up three reasons why the combination of the Internet of Things & Blockchain has so much potential and why it is worthwhile to dive into:

  1. Encryption and distributed storage

When the by sensor and actuator generated data is stored and encrypted on Blockchain technology this raw data can be transported to a distributed network. The question is however which data needs to be stored. A solution is to store all the data in a decentralized distributed cloud storage environment and add the hash of the raw data on the blockchain. You can therefor never alter the data because the hash will be different. Also, your transaction size is very low because it only contains a hash. You also can do this with complete documents or images.

  1. The perfect audit trails

With a growing number of networks and data the question of, what is real and what is not, is getting more and more valid. For that reason, Blockchain can be put into place to create a perfect audit trail to locate the source of, and connection between data.

  1. Trusting IoT devices

How can I trust a company? How do I know if a B&B is any good? Through ratings. Can I trust the ratings? Many times, not. The same question arises when consuming data from IoT devices. It is very likely that IoT devices get rated in the future. And yes, the ratings are on the Blockchain, so you can verify the if the rating is authentic. Another solution is to store all the valid public keys of the trusted IoT devices on a Blockchain.

 

Experiment and iterate to the moon and back

We would like to close the article with the following advice. All technological breakthroughs start with knowing the true potential of specific technologies. How often do you think that inventors were successful by ‘accident’? For that reason, it is important to give people the trust and budget to experiment with new technology and find out what the true potential is. When we know the true potential, we have a starting point to conceptualize the impact on tomorrows business (models) and we can start realizing the dream. That brings us to our last point, moonshots. Moonshots are often referred by as:

“A moonshot, in a technology context, is an ambitious, exploratory and ground-breaking project undertaken without any expectation of near-term profitability or benefit and, perhaps, without a full investigation of potential risks and benefits.” Source: TechTarget

So.., the big question, after reading this article is:

 

What moonshot are you going to take in combining the potential of Internet of Things & Blockchain?

 

Biographies of the writers

Martin Aarnoudse – is an IT Professional working at OVSoftware with specialization in .NET and Blockchain. For him Blockchain is the next big thing. He has given a few internal sessions on Blockchain and external sessions for developers are planned later this year. He also supervises two graduates on this topic. Want to know more about his vision on Blockchain or share your own? Get in contact with Martin via his  LinkedIn page

Rick Bouter – is a consultant Emerging Technology within Accenture’s Consulting practice. Within his role, Rick helps companies to understand the impact of new and emerging technologies and how to apply them to create impact for their clients. In his spare time Rick writes articles about innovation and trends such as, Blockchain, Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and others which can be found on his website: www.rickbouter.com. The impact of new technology on human, ethics and economics are topics that appeals to him. You can contact Rick via his LinkedIn page.

Sources & images:

Forbes

Image 1 – TNW

Image 2 – Datamining4u

Image 3 – Adage

Human Centric Design: “How to turn new technology into new money?”

Business Model Innovation, Business models, Design thinking, digital transformation, Human centric design, Innovation, Inspiring, technology, Trends, Trendwatching, Uncategorized

New technologies are flooding the world, AI, VR, Blockchain, bots, edge computing and so on are regularly featured in blogs, articles and more. If you look at the Gartner Hype cycle you can’t but help thinking that the technological development is outrunning our imagination. When you take a closer look at those articles and blogs you see applications of new technology that you would have never foreseen. A question that is keep popping up is the value add for clients and end users. But besides all the technology wanderlust, in the end there is only one real question left…

“How to turn the meaning of new technology into new money?”

Today’s tech challenge

In a lot of boardrooms, this is a very big challenge. Because: “How do you use new technology in products and services that are beneficial for our clients and they are willing to pay for?” One key element is the need to question yourself on the following: “Are we client driven or technology driven?” Many companies these days are tech driven and, often fail in first instance. The problem with companies that put technology as their main driver, is that applying new technology is a goal in itself. The point of that is that it is not serving any company or customers issues or ambitions.

Today’s tech opportunity

The companies that do succeed, typically apply techniques that are derived from organisations that have an extreme customer focus (customer obsessed) and apply techniques like strategic design (design thinking, customer journeys, etc.) to reframe their thinking. The main driver to use these techniques is that the focus is more and more towards human centric design (HCD). But what is Human Centric Design. We would like to quote a line our of a brilliant piece from the Guardian called: “Why Human Centric Design matters”

“Steve Jobs once asserted, “True innovation comes from recognizing an unmet need and designing a creative way to fill it.” While he may not have been specifically referring to human centered design, you’d be forgiven for making the assumption. After all, the purpose of human centered design is to create innovative products, services and solutions through creative and collaborative practices.”

So how can digital transformation tools help you discover new applications for all these emerging technologies to apply Human Centric Design?

Building ground zero

The first step to apply Human Centric Design is by applying Digital Transformation tools to build ground zero. By applying the key principles of Design Thinking (Empathise, Define, Ideate, Prototype and Test) you put yourself in the shoes of the customer/ end user and force yourself to reframe the initial question/ problem/ issue. It helps you identify why and for whom you are designing. Doing this from multiple viewpoints (reframing) will provide you with new insights and (sometimes) unexpected views of the initial problem.

Get ready for impact…

The second step is to point every single resource in putting Human Centred design to work. This method, originally developed by IDEO (ideo.org), turns imagination in to real solutions. By going through Inspiration, Ideation and Implementation steps you turn deep insights into human needs (empathy) in to multiple ideas, designs or prototypes to life and eventually to market. A key aspect to this is continuous learning in all of the phases.

Human Centred Design resulted in Impact

By applying deep learning and understanding your customers from the start, you maintain the ability to quickly adapt these learnings to what you are designing and building. As a result you will build a successful product or service since you have, throughout the process, kept the people you are doing this for at the heart of the process. By doing that the meaning of Human Centred Design is applied and you created meaningful innovation. Innovation, not driven by technology but driven by the people who are using it every day, using it to increase welfare and that is innovation as well companies as humans are willing to pay for.

Happy innovating, Bob & Rick

 

 

Biographies of the writers

Bob Ickenroth – Is lead digital consultant at inspearit Netherlands. In this role, Bob is responsible for assisting companies in their transformation towards a more digital self. He is a coach, consultant and trainer in topics such as innovation, business and IT alignment and value creation with the customer at heart. Bob has over 20 years of international experience bridging the gap between business and IT. More information about Bob can be found on his LinkedIn page.

Rick Bouter – is a consultant Emerging Technology within Accenture’s Consulting practice. Within his role, Rick helps companies to understand the impact of new and emerging technologies and how to apply them to create impact for their clients. In his spare time Rick writes articles about innovation and trends such as, Blockchain, Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and others which can be found on his website: www.rickbouter.com. In particular, the impact of new technology on human, ethics and economics are topics that appeals to him. You can contact Rick via his LinkedIn page.

Image credit 1

Image credit 2: Source: IDEO

Image credit 3: Source: Stanford.edu

 

                                                                                                     

Internet of Things: “from buzzword to differentiator”

Business Model Innovation, Business models, Caesar, Digital maturity, Digital Strategy, digital transformation, Innovation, Inspiring, Internet of Everything, Internet of things, IoE, IoT, Uncategorized

This blog originally appeared on the Caesar Experts blog

Internet of Things as a buzzword – The Internet of Things (IoT) is a buzzword which cannot be removed from our trend scene recently. Everyone is talking about the Internet of Things or one of the many synonyms of it, but what is IoT exactly? In the upcoming blog series of three articles, I will elaborate on IoT as a trend, several concrete examples will briefly pass by, and we will see how your organization can start concretely. In this article, “Internet of Things 1/3 – from buzzword to differentiator” I will elaborate on what this technological development is and we will point to the IoT as a trend.

What is the Internet of Things? – The Internet of Things is a technological development in which machines, building, people & other objects can be connected to the internet or another network. By providing the above objects with sensors & actuators, you can quickly generate data through these objects. Through the internet or another network, the data will come towards you, which gives you a lot more data about the internal processes of an object or the external processes, the environment. This data can be of incredible importance to creating a strategy whether it is for realizing new revenue models, reducing costs or optimizing company processes.

Image 1: IoT Business DNA

 Getting back to the term Internet of Things. What does this technological trend include? There are many definitions & synonyms described on the Internet of Things, in this article I want to engage how we, at Caesar, use the Internet of Things, in two parts:

Insight – Under insight, we count the measuring through sensors, the collecting of data and the analyzing of collected data.

Influence – Under influence, we understand the communicating to users/decision-makers, a different way of interacting than we have seen up until now and the automating of processes.

From data to wisdom – Nowadays the Internet of Things wins its popularity because we live in a world which has engaged in a complete ‘run’ on data. That is only logical! With data, you can make choices for your company by using correct and complete information and offer the customer services that they want.

Image 2: Insight & Influence

 The intertwining of an old and a new world – Where you can optimise processes, production, assets and logistics with the Internet of Things, you can also influence the business of tomorrow. For example, you can use the Internet of Things to work with entirely new business models which strengthen customer relations, apply other revenue and payment models, change the ways of dealing with upselling & lock-in and have data function as an extra source of income.

 Summarized we can say that the Internet of Things makes it possible to collect more data, which gives you a better grip on your business of today and give you the insight and influence of tomorrow.

 

“Have you thought about which impact this trend has on your company and which chances this brings for you?”

 

Knowing more about the Internet of Things – Could your organization use some help to start with a case concretely? We like to help to work towards your goal using the examples above. For more information, you can get in contact with me here to talk about an IoT inspiration session or IoT brain game.

 Do you want to know more about how your organization can use the Internet of Things? Let me know and maybe I can help you.

Image credits

#4 books on technology & digital transformation you should read

Business Model Innovation, Business models, Capgemini, Capgemini Consulting, Didier Bonnet, Digital maturity, Digital Strategy, digital transformation, Expert Connect, Innovation, Internet of things, Leading Digital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, MIT sloan

These days there are an exploding amount of books on technology. Personally I think the books below are really insight full and I would recommand these books.

 

#1 – “The Second Machine Age” by Erik Brynjolfsson & Andrew McAfee

View, “Race with the machines: Erik Brynjolfsson at TED2013”, here

 

#2 – “Leading Digital” – “Turning technology into business transformation” from George Westerman of MIT, Didier Bonnet of Capgemini Consulting, and Andrew McAfee, also at MIT.

View Didier Bonnet’s keynote presentation on “Leading Digital” at Oracle Open World 2014 here.

 

#3 – “The Innovators” – “How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution”, by Walter Isaacson

The Washington Post Book review, The New York Times review, The Wallstreet Journal review

Check Walter Isaacson out during a Google Talk discussion

 

#4 – “Enchanted Objects” – by David Rose

His popular book, Enchanted Objects: Design, Human Desire, and the Internet of Things, focuses on the future of the internet of things and how these technologies will impact the ways we live and work. He’s also a lecturer at the MIT Media Lab and has worked with the Tangible Media and City Science groups. David holds patents for photo sharing, interactive TV, ambient information displays and medical devices. His work has been featured at the MoMA, covered in The New York Times, WIRED, The Economist, and parodied on The Colbert Report. Source: https://enchantedobjects.com/about/

Check out David Rose his Tedx keynote on Enchanted Objects

Photo credit featured image

Blockchain: cryptocurrencies and the limitless other applications of this technology

Bitcoin, Blockchain, Business Model Innovation, Business models, Distributed Ledger Technologie (DLT), Innovation

Today I was asked to present about Blockchain, cryptocurrencies and the limitless other applications of this technology for a group of 60 students.

Are you interested in a key note or workshop as well, let me know via a LinkedIn message or via a comment below this post.

 

Vandaag heb ik gesproken voor een groep van 60 studenten over Blockchain, cryptocurrencies en de vele andere mogelijkheden en toepassingen van deze technologie.

Geinteresseerd in een keynote of workshop, laat het me weten via LinkedIn of in de comments hier beneden en ik neem contact met je op.

Samen krachtiger in innovatie – Caesar Experts & a.s.r.

Business Model Innovation, Business models, Caesar, Caesar Experts, data, digital transformation, Innovation, Inspiring, Internet of things, IoT, technology

Impressie video van een Internet of Things innovatie traject welke ik voor Caesar gedaan heb bij verzekeraar a.s.r.

“De technologiehelden van Caesar Experts (Rick, Bahto, Jeffrey en Jeroen) hebben in een paar weken de business van a.s.r. meegenomen in de wereld van Internet of Things (IoT) met een IoT workshop. Daarnaast hebben ze in een razend tempo een prototype voor a.s.r. gemaakt met bijbehorend dashboard wat laat zien welke triggers afgaan op basis van omgevingsdata.”

What happens with Blockchain in the Dutch government?

bitcoin, Bitcoin, blockchain, Blockchain, Business Model Innovation, Business models, Distributed Ledger Technologie (DLT), Innovation, Inspiring

Are you interested what happens with Blockchain within the Dutch government?

Make sure you look out this 389 pages counting .pdf. In this document called: Results Blockchain pilots june – november 2016 there is a very nice overview on a diversity of Blockchain pilots within the Dutch government.

Verkenningen_Pilots bij Rijksoverheid_Resultaten blockchainpilots jun-nov 2016

Source: DA2020

 

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